How to Act Around, Identify, and Care for Horses
Horse Breeds: Arabian, Quarter, Appaloosa, Mustang, Morgan, & Thoroughbred
Danger zones where a horse cannot see you:
1. In front: Never walk under the horse’s neck
2. Behind: Never approach from the rear
3. Underneath: Never go under the horse’s belly
Horse Grooming Basics:
1. Curry Comb: Use in circular motions, never use on face or legs
2. Brush or Dandy Brush: Brush in direction of hair with long strokes, don’t use on face
3. Soft Brush or Body Brush: Brush in direction of hair with long strokes, use on face
4. Hoof Pick: Slide hand down the back of the horse’s leg and hold it up by the hoof when the horse lifts his leg. Clean out all debris, especially in the grooves next to the frog, where rocks can get wedged.
1. Ears pinned back: Angry
2. Ears forward: Listening ahead
3. One ear back & one to front: Listening both directions
4. Both ears slanted back: Listening behind
Bay, Chestnut/Sorrel, & Gray
Palamino, Buckskin, Dun, & Grullo/Grulla
Appaloosa & Paint/Pinto
Horse Face Markings:
Star, Stip. or Blaze, Snip & Upper Lip/Lower Lip, and Chin
Horse Leg Markings:
None, Coronet, Pastern, Quarter Sock or Ankle Sock, Half Sock, & Full Sock
Parts of a Horse:
Beginner: Mane, Withers, Flank, Tail, & Hoof
Intermediate 1: Poll, Forelock, Chestnut, Hock (leg joint), & Fetlock (ankle)
Intermediate 2: Crest, Forearm, Arm, Pastern, Coronet, Cannon, Stifle, & Croup
Parts of a Hoof:
Beginner: Toe, Wall, Sole, Frog, & Heel
Beginner: Throat Latch, Reins, & Bit
Intermediate: Brow Band, Cheek Piece, & Curb Chain
Types of Saddles:
Western and English
Pommel, Cantel, Stirrup/Irons, Leathers
1. Natural Aids: Voice, Hands, Legs, & Seat
2. Artificial Aids: Whips, Spurs, & some types of Tack
6 Basic School Movements:
Beginner: Full Turn, Half Turn, Cross the School
Intermediate: Serpentine, Cross the Diagonal, Down the Centerline
1. Basic normal range for full-grown horse: Temperature 99–101, Pulse 28–40 beats per minute, Respiration 12–24 breaths per minute
2. Colic: Stomachache. Unlike humans, horses cannot throw up. Instead, they rub the pain away by rolling around, which can be dangerous because the intestines can get twisted. If a horse has severe colic, a veterinarian must treat them.
3. Founder: Severe condition that affects a horse’s hooves. The tissue inside the hoof becomes inflamed and the bone begins to rotate inside the hoof. Once the bone has rotated, it will never return to the normal position, and if it rotates too far, it can actually push through the bottom of the hoof sole.
Basic Horse Care:
1. Feeding: Usually two to three times a day. The basic formula for horse feeding is to give one to one-and-a-half percent of their body weight each day.
2. Shoeing: Hooves constantly grow and need to be trimmed and/or shoed about every six weeks.
3. Worming: Many types of worms can infest a horse’s stomach, so routine treatments are given. The most common is a paste wormer given orally every four to six months, or a daily feed additive.
4. Shots: Most receive an annual vaccine that protects from common horse ailments and diseases. If they travel a lot, they usually get a biannual or even quarterly vaccine.